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Michael Prokop: Debian stretch: changes in util-linux #newinstretch

May 19, 2017 8:42 , by Planet Debian - 0no comments yet | No one following this article yet.
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We’re coming closer to the Debian/stretch stable release and similar to what we had with #newinwheezy and #newinjessie it’s time for #newinstretch!

Hideki Yamane already started the game by blogging about GitHub’s Icon font, fonts-octicons and Arturo Borrero Gonzalez wrote a nice article about nftables in Debian/stretch.

One package that isn’t new but its tools are used by many of us is util-linux, providing many essential system utilities. We have util-linux v2.25.2 in Debian/jessie and in Debian/stretch there will be util-linux >=v2.29.2. There are many new options available and we also have a few new tools available.

Tools that have been taken over from other packages

  • last: used to be shipped via sysvinit-utils in Debian/jessie
  • lastb: used to be shipped via sysvinit-utils in Debian/jessie
  • mountpoint: used to be shipped via initscripts in Debian/jessie
  • sulogin: used to be shipped via sysvinit-utils in Debian/jessie

New tools

  • lsipc: show information on IPC facilities, e.g.:
root@ff2713f55b36:/# lsipc
RESOURCE DESCRIPTION                                              LIMIT USED  USE%
MSGMNI   Number of message queues                                 32000    0 0.00%
MSGMAX   Max size of message (bytes)                               8192    -     -
MSGMNB   Default max size of queue (bytes)                        16384    -     -
SHMMNI   Shared memory segments                                    4096    0 0.00%
SHMALL   Shared memory pages                       18446744073692774399    0 0.00%
SHMMAX   Max size of shared memory segment (bytes) 18446744073692774399    -     -
SHMMIN   Min size of shared memory segment (bytes)                    1    -     -
SEMMNI   Number of semaphore identifiers                          32000    0 0.00%
SEMMNS   Total number of semaphores                          1024000000    0 0.00%
SEMMSL   Max semaphores per semaphore set.                        32000    -     -
SEMOPM   Max number of operations per semop(2)                      500    -     -
SEMVMX   Semaphore max value                                      32767    -     -
  • lslogins: display information about known users in the system, e.g.:
  • root@ff2713f55b36:/# lslogins 
      UID USER     PROC PWD-LOCK PWD-DENY LAST-LOGIN GECOS
        0 root        2        0        1            root
        1 daemon      0        0        1            daemon
        2 bin         0        0        1            bin
        3 sys         0        0        1            sys
        4 sync        0        0        1            sync
        5 games       0        0        1            games
        6 man         0        0        1            man
        7 lp          0        0        1            lp
        8 mail        0        0        1            mail
        9 news        0        0        1            news
       10 uucp        0        0        1            uucp
       13 proxy       0        0        1            proxy
       33 www-data    0        0        1            www-data
       34 backup      0        0        1            backup
       38 list        0        0        1            Mailing List Manager
       39 irc         0        0        1            ircd
       41 gnats       0        0        1            Gnats Bug-Reporting System (admin)
      100 _apt        0        0        1            
    65534 nobody      0        0        1            nobody
    
  • lsns: list system namespaces, e.g.:
  • root@ff2713f55b36:/# lsns
            NS TYPE   NPROCS PID USER COMMAND
    4026531835 cgroup      2   1 root bash
    4026531837 user        2   1 root bash
    4026532473 mnt         2   1 root bash
    4026532474 uts         2   1 root bash
    4026532475 ipc         2   1 root bash
    4026532476 pid         2   1 root bash
    4026532478 net         2   1 root bash
    
  • mesg: control write access of other users to your terminal
  • setpriv: run a program with different privilege settings
  • zramctl: tool to quickly set up zram device parameters, to reset zram devices, and to query the status of used zram devices
  • New features/options

    addpart (show or change the real-time scheduling attributes of a process):

    --reload reload prompts on running agetty instances
    

    blkdiscard (discard the content of sectors on a device):

    -p, --step <num>    size of the discard iterations within the offset
    -z, --zeroout       zero-fill rather than discard
    

    chrt (show or change the real-time scheduling attributes of a process):

    -d, --deadline            set policy to SCHED_DEADLINE
    -T, --sched-runtime <ns>  runtime parameter for DEADLINE
    -P, --sched-period <ns>   period parameter for DEADLINE
    -D, --sched-deadline <ns> deadline parameter for DEADLINE
    

    fdformat (do a low-level formatting of a floppy disk):

    -f, --from <N>    start at the track N (default 0)
    -t, --to <N>      stop at the track N
    -r, --repair <N>  try to repair tracks failed during the verification (max N retries)
    

    fdisk (display or manipulate a disk partition table):

    -B, --protect-boot            don't erase bootbits when creating a new label
    -o, --output <list>           output columns
        --bytes                   print SIZE in bytes rather than in human readable format
    -w, --wipe <mode>             wipe signatures (auto, always or never)
    -W, --wipe-partitions <mode>  wipe signatures from new partitions (auto, always or never)
    
    New available columns (for -o):
    
     gpt: Device Start End Sectors Size Type Type-UUID Attrs Name UUID
     dos: Device Start End Sectors Cylinders Size Type Id Attrs Boot End-C/H/S Start-C/H/S
     bsd: Slice Start End Sectors Cylinders Size Type Bsize Cpg Fsize
     sgi: Device Start End Sectors Cylinders Size Type Id Attrs
     sun: Device Start End Sectors Cylinders Size Type Id Flags
    

    findmnt (find a (mounted) filesystem):

    -J, --json             use JSON output format
    -M, --mountpoint <dir> the mountpoint directory
    -x, --verify           verify mount table content (default is fstab)
        --verbose          print more details
    

    flock (manage file locks from shell scripts):

    -F, --no-fork            execute command without forking
        --verbose            increase verbosity
    

    getty (open a terminal and set its mode):

    --reload               reload prompts on running agetty instances
    

    hwclock (query or set the hardware clock):

    --get            read hardware clock and print drift corrected result
    --update-drift   update drift factor in /etc/adjtime (requires --set or --systohc)
    

    ldattach (attach a line discipline to a serial line):

    -c, --intro-command <string>  intro sent before ldattach
    -p, --pause <seconds>         pause between intro and ldattach
    

    logger (enter messages into the system log):

    -e, --skip-empty         do not log empty lines when processing files
        --no-act             do everything except the write the log
        --octet-count        use rfc6587 octet counting
    -S, --size <size>        maximum size for a single message
        --rfc3164            use the obsolete BSD syslog protocol
        --rfc5424[=<snip>]   use the syslog protocol (the default for remote);
                               <snip> can be notime, or notq, and/or nohost
        --sd-id <id>         rfc5424 structured data ID
        --sd-param <data>    rfc5424 structured data name=value
        --msgid <msgid>      set rfc5424 message id field
        --socket-errors[=<on|off|auto>] print connection errors when using Unix sockets
    

    losetup (set up and control loop devices):

    -L, --nooverlap               avoid possible conflict between devices
        --direct-io[=<on|off>]    open backing file with O_DIRECT 
    -J, --json                    use JSON --list output format
    
    New available --list column:
    
    DIO  access backing file with direct-io
    

    lsblk (list information about block devices):

    -J, --json           use JSON output format
    
    New available columns (for --output):
    
    HOTPLUG  removable or hotplug device (usb, pcmcia, ...)
    SUBSYSTEMS  de-duplicated chain of subsystems
    

    lscpu (display information about the CPU architecture):

    -y, --physical          print physical instead of logical IDs
    
    New available column:
    
    DRAWER  logical drawer number
    

    lslocks (list local system locks):

    -J, --json             use JSON output format
    -i, --noinaccessible   ignore locks without read permissions
    

    nsenter (run a program with namespaces of other processes):

    -C, --cgroup[=<file>]      enter cgroup namespace
        --preserve-credentials do not touch uids or gids
    -Z, --follow-context       set SELinux context according to --target PID
    

    rtcwake (enter a system sleep state until a specified wakeup time):

    --date <timestamp>   date time of timestamp to wake
    --list-modes         list available modes
    -r, --reorder <dev>  fix partitions order (by start offset)
    

    sfdisk (display or manipulate a disk partition table):

    New Commands:
    
    -J, --json <dev>                  dump partition table in JSON format
    -F, --list-free [<dev> ...]       list unpartitioned free areas of each device
    -r, --reorder <dev>               fix partitions order (by start offset)
        --delete <dev> [<part> ...]   delete all or specified partitions
    --part-label <dev> <part> [<str>] print or change partition label
    --part-type <dev> <part> [<type>] print or change partition type
    --part-uuid <dev> <part> [<uuid>] print or change partition uuid
    --part-attrs <dev> <part> [<str>] print or change partition attributes
    
    New Options:
    
    -a, --append                   append partitions to existing partition table
    -b, --backup                   backup partition table sectors (see -O)
        --bytes                    print SIZE in bytes rather than in human readable format
        --move-data[=<typescript>] move partition data after relocation (requires -N)
        --color[=<when>]           colorize output (auto, always or never)
                                   colors are enabled by default
    -N, --partno <num>             specify partition number
    -n, --no-act                   do everything except write to device
        --no-tell-kernel           do not tell kernel about changes
    -O, --backup-file <path>       override default backup file name
    -o, --output <list>            output columns
    -w, --wipe <mode>              wipe signatures (auto, always or never)
    -W, --wipe-partitions <mode>   wipe signatures from new partitions (auto, always or never)
    -X, --label <name>             specify label type (dos, gpt, ...)
    -Y, --label-nested <name>      specify nested label type (dos, bsd)
    
    Available columns (for -o):
    
     gpt: Device Start End Sectors Size Type Type-UUID Attrs Name UUID
     dos: Device Start End Sectors Cylinders Size Type Id Attrs Boot End-C/H/S Start-C/H/S
     bsd: Slice Start  End Sectors Cylinders Size Type Bsize Cpg Fsize
     sgi: Device Start End Sectors Cylinders Size Type Id Attrs
     sun: Device Start End Sectors Cylinders Size Type Id Flags
    

    swapon (enable devices and files for paging and swapping):

    -o, --options <list>     comma-separated list of swap options
    
    New available columns (for --show):
    
    UUID   swap uuid
    LABEL  swap label
    

    unshare (run a program with some namespaces unshared from the parent):

    -C, --cgroup[=<file>]                              unshare cgroup namespace
        --propagation slave|shared|private|unchanged   modify mount propagation in mount namespace
    -s, --setgroups allow|deny                         control the setgroups syscall in user namespaces
    

    Deprecated / removed options

    sfdisk (display or manipulate a disk partition table):

    -c, --id                  change or print partition Id
        --change-id           change Id
        --print-id            print Id
    -C, --cylinders <number>  set the number of cylinders to use
    -H, --heads <number>      set the number of heads to use
    -S, --sectors <number>    set the number of sectors to use
    -G, --show-pt-geometry    deprecated, alias to --show-geometry
    -L, --Linux               deprecated, only for backward compatibility
    -u, --unit S              deprecated, only sector unit is supported
    

    Source: https://michael-prokop.at/blog/2017/05/19/debian-stretch-changes-in-util-linux-newinstretch/

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